AP U.S. History

ZINN CHAPTER 3

Study Questions

1. What is Zinnís thesis in this chapter?

2. What was the underlying cause of Baconís Rebellion?

3. What was the "double motive" of the Virginia government vis-à-vis Baconís
    Rebellion?

4. What groups of people took part in Baconís Rebellion?

5. Explain indentured servitude (also known as the "headright system").

6. How did the voyage of indentured servants to America compare with the
    "Middle Passage."

7. What generally happened to indentured servants after they became free?

8. To what extent did a class structure emerge in America by 1700?

9. What evidence does Zinn provide regarding the monopoly of power by the rich
    in Boston?

10. Explain the statement: "The country therefore was not "born free" but born
    slave and free, servant and master, tenant and landlord, poor and rich."

11. How did the rich manage to keep Indians "at a distance?"

12. What was the probable reason why Parliament made transportation to the
    New World a legal punishment for crime?

13. Explain the statement: "race was becoming more and more practical."
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

AP U.S. History

Mr. Mercado

ZINN CHAPTER 3

Study Questions

1. What is Zinnís thesis in this chapter? As the colonial period progressed, a distinct class structure developed, creating significant class tension between poor and rich whites. Rich and

powerful whites eventually discovered effective means of manipulating the middle class and the lower class to suit their own needs by deflecting underclass frustration on to British loyalists, keeping Indians at bay by creating a buffer of poor whites in frontier regions, using racism as a means to promote white unity, and providing gains to the middle class in return for support of upper-class ideals.

2. What was the underlying cause of Baconís Rebellion? Discontented farmers in

western Virginia were angry that Governor Berkeley and the House of Burgesses seemed to do little to protect the western frontier from Indian attacks.

3. What was the "double motive" of the Virginia government vis-à-vis Baconís Rebellion? Essentially, the House of Burgesses sought to divide Indians to control them while punishing rebellious whites as a means to discourage future rebellion.

4. What groups of people took part in Baconís Rebellion? Baconís masses included free men, indentured servants, and black slaves.

5. Explain indentured servitude (also known as the "headright system") and compare it to black slavery. Poor Europeans would agree to provide usually 5-7 years of exclusive service in return for the cost of transportation to the New World. In effect, it was white slavery. Indentured servants were bought and sold like slaves. Indentured servants

could not marry without permission, could have their families separated, and could be

whipped or beaten if they defied their master.

6. How did the voyage of indentured servants to America compare with the "Middle Passage." Although indentured servants were usually not chained and subjected to abominable conditions to the same extent of blacks, their voyage was nevertheless extremely crowded and characterized by extreme health problems..

7. What generally happened to indentured servants after they became free? Most (about 80%) remained poor, many returned to England, or died during servitude. Many of those who stayed became tenant farmers.

8. To what extent did a class structure emerge in America by 1700? The wealthy had

managed to monopolize wealth and power while the poor grew in numbers. A growing middle

class of artisans and merchants began to develop during this time.

Answer key -- Zinn Chapter 3 -2-
 
 

9. What evidence does Zinn provide regarding the monopoly of power by the rich in Boston? One historian has noted that in 1687, the top 1% owned about 25% of the wealth. By 1770, 1% now controlled 44% of the wealth.

10. Explain the statement: "The country therefore was not "born free" but born slave and free, servant and master, tenant and landlord, poor and rich." By the

time of the American Revolution, many people living in America were neither free nor economically self-sufficient. Most indentured servants were hardly better off than when they

came, black slaves accounted for 20% of the population, women were excluded, and the

real source of power and wealth rested in the hands of a few aristocrats.

11. How did the rich manage to keep Indians "at a distance?" Poor whites were crowded

out of the eastern seaboard and thus forced to locate in the western frontier, where they

created a buffer between Indians in the west, and the propertied class of the east.

12. What was the probable reason why Parliament made transportation to the New World a legal punishment for crime? Certain colonies grew concerned that their

population was too black, thus creating the possibility for revolt. Thus, white criminals

sent to America would help equalize the population.

13. Explain the statement: "race was becoming more and more practical."

As a means of controlling poor whites, rich whites increasingly began playing the race card to forge an alliance among whites. It became a convenient tool as even the poorest whites could rationalize that they were still better than the blacks.